Exhaled Mycobacterium tuberculosis output and detection of subclinical disease by face-mask sampling: prospective observational studies

Face-mask sampling offers a highly efficient and non-invasive method for detecting exhaled M tuberculosis, informing the presence of active infection both with greater consistency and at an earlier disease stage than with sputum samples. The approach shows potential for diagnosis and screening, particularly in difficult-to-reach communities.The Lancet Infectious Diseases

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