The article describes the temporal distribution and epidemiologic characteristics of congenital syphilis (CS) cases in the city of Niterói, southeastern Brazil, from 2007 to 2016. Article's language (Portuguese). Social inequalities were linked to CS in the present sample. Increasing CS incidence was detected in youth. Health care professionals must be trained to manage gestational syphilis, and public policies must effectively address the social determinants of this condition.